It is an issue the world has had to deal with before and one we would expect to have learned from. Unfortunately similarly to the 1930s, governments around Europe are having to deal with a re-emergence of the Far Right. With the extremist parties such as Greece’s Golden Dawn (~7%), Hungary’s Jobbik (~17%), Bulgaria’s Ataka (~10) and Belgium’s Vlaams Blok (~12% before they were dismantled following their indictment before Belgian federal Court. However, they since then have reformed as “Vlaams Belang” and reclaimed votes) achieving significant electoral successes, the rise of the Far Right has become a real issue that cannot be ignored. Many have drawn parallels with the emergence of fascism experienced in the 1920’s after the Great War and especially the 1930’s following the Great Depression but while there are some similarities, the rise of the ‘Modern Far Right’ has its own complex and unique causes.
The first trigger for Far Right support is the major parallel drawn with the 1930s. The recession has crippled economies around Europe leading to high inflation and unemployment. Desperate voters in Greece and Hungary turn towards radical alternatives, as their disillusion with the mainstream parties grows. Corruption and economic mismanagement has angered the electorate leading to low turnouts and an increase in protest votes, both of which bode well for Far Right parties whose loyal followers never fail to cast their vote. Hungary’s last election saw a disappointing turnout of 46.5% in the second round.
Similarly to France, far right parties in Belgium and Switzerland address the dangers of immigration, focusing especially on Muslim immigration to Europe. As a whole, the far right parties of Europe are better organized, focusing on policies that appeal to specific demographics such as strict immigration laws and the implementation of nationalist welfare. Parties such as Jobbik have a strong online and public presence and have created international links with the likes of Iran’s government and other like-minded parties such as the BNP. This new presentation has allowed these parties to capitalize on the void left behind by the failing governments of the past years.
While anti-Muslim rhetoric has garnered support for far right parties in Switzerland and France, a very different type of movement is even more successful in Central-Eastern Europe. In Bulgaria and especially Hungary, the Far Right has become an anti-Roma and anti-Semitic movement, which similarly to Golden Dawn is more aggressive than the movements in Western Europe. Hungary’s situation is a delicate one as the strong success of the Jobbik is starting to become worrying. Viktor Orbán’s governing Fidesz party not only dabbles in nationalistic rhetoric itself but refuses to clamp down on the Far Right out of fear of alienating its electorate, which only strengthens Jobbik’s position. Fidesz hopes to poach Jobbik’s more moderate voters and as a result has failed to properly address the most serious issues. Such issues include the anti-Jewish rally in Budapest during the World Jewish Conference in May, the killing of 6 Roma Hungarians by Neo-Nazis in 2008, the illegal regrouping of the banned Hungarian Guard and a Jobbik MP’s proposal to create a list of all Hungarian Jewish figures who pose a national security threat. While speaking out against the Far Right internationally, Orbán’s government has been mute in Hungary, creating a climate in which xenophobia and other discrimination has become acceptable. Jobbik’s efficient organization and the political atmosphere under the Fidesz government is why the Far Right is stronger in Hungary than in similar countries such as Romania or the Czech Republic.